Taxnul Reference Grammar

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Contents

I. Introduction

II. Phonology

III. Morphology

A. Pronouns

B. Articles

C. Adjectives

D. Verbs

E. Prepositions

IV. Syntax

A. Verbs

V. Writing System

VI. Examples

Introduction

uhhhhhhhhhhhh taxnul is my conlang. it's a personal lang so don't jump on my ass for anything that isnt 900% naturalistic.

i'm also not an expert linguist or anything so don't yell at me if i said something stupid ;~;

so.. yeah. here's the reference grammar.

Phonology

(Phonemes where romanization differs from IPA representation have romanizations in red.)

Consonants

labial alveolar lateral postalveolar velar
stop voiceless p t t͡ɬ <tl> k
voiced b d g
nasal m n
fricative voiceless f s ɬ <ll> ʃ <sc> χ <x>
voiced v <w> z ʒ <zc>
flap ɾ <r>
approximant l j

Vowels

front central back
close i u
mid ɛ <e> ə <e> o
open ɑ <a>

You might notice that the sounds /ə/ and /ɛ/ have the same romanization. This is because the letter e in taxnul is pronounced as /ə/ when found in the first syllable of a word (excluding initial) or the final sound, and as /ɛ/ otherwise.

Take for example the following words:

bebi /bəbi/
dometl /domɛtɬ/
elira /ɛliɾɑ/
ante /ɑntə/

Prosody

In Taxnul, stress typically goes on the second syllable of a word. However, the following exceptions apply:

  • Verbs and their conjugations stress the final syllable, e.g. 'Antir', 'Antit', 'Antutan'
  • Words with only two syllables put stress on the initial syllable, e.g. 'Bebi', 'Eksax'
  • Generally, compound words place stress on the appropriate syllable of the initial word, e.g. 'Atendir', 'Koguplun'

Morphology

Taxnul is a Nominative-Accusative language. This means that the argument of an intransitive verb takes the same case as the agent of a transitive ones, that being the Nominative case. It follows, then, that the patient, or direct object, of a transitive verb takes the Accusative case. In addition to these, Taxnul features three additional cases: The Dative, Genitive, and Equative. Case in Taxnul is marked on articles, adjectives, and pronouns. Below is a series of explanations with example sentences.

Dative

The Dative case denotes the recipient or beneficiary of an action, or, in English, the indirect obect of a verb.
Consider the sentence "I gave the book to the customer." in Taxnul, this translates to:

Sil pozcit zotl Gapiren zom Pjosct kokescare.

As you can see, zotl Gapiren, or, "the customer," is in the Dative case because they are the recipient of the verb, "kokescare."

Genitive

The Genitive case denotes possession. This is achieved in english by appending "'s" to a the owner of the noun being modified, or with "of." in Taxnul, the system is similar to that of German. Consider the translation for the sentence "That is the woman's handbag":

Do kax zon Bjoktl zo Kaisc.

*Note: As Taxnul doesn't denote gender, the word for 'woman' is simply 'Kaisc,' or 'person.'

As is illustrated, the Genitive case is inherited by the owner currently modifying the noun in question.

Equative

Finally, the Equative case denotes comparison of equals, as in "as... as a...." consider the sentence "You're as fortunate as a spider."

Mozc kaxat kwe karak winjo ak Scjanatl

*Literally: "You're so (kwe) fortunate like (winjo) a spider"

The Equative case in Taxnul is also used as a similative case, as in the sentence "It's like a bad dream." Translation: Ul kax winjo ak Sorazc scotlakos.

Basically, if you see the word "winjo" it's gonna be followed by a construction in the equative case.

Pronouns

Pronouns in Taxnul are declined for case and number, below is a chart for the personal pronouns.

person nom acc dat equ
1st singular sil zcik scotl silek
1st plural sila zcila scila zitla
2nd singular mozc moktl moret mur
2nd plural mora moktara
morela
mojtaw
3rd singular ul ullu ular uz
3rd plural ulia utlia ulora uzta

And, the possessive pronouns:

person nom acc dat gen equ
1st singular zori wilok wilotl zilom wilos
1st plural zoriwa wjutok wjutl zitlor wjutos
2nd singular emta emtak emtatl emtar emtas
2nd plural eloma elomak
elomatl
elomar elomos
3rd singular zoru zoruk zorutl zoruw zorus
3rd plural asoru asoruk asorutl asoruw asorus

*notice the irregularity in the 1st person nominative and genative.

Articles

There's not a ton to say about the articles, i just kinda needed somewhere to dump this chart.

nom acc dat gen equ
definite zon zom zol zo zan
indefinite en em et er ak

Note that the definite articles drop the /z/ when immediately preceded my a sibilant. For example:

"Zon Pjas o Torjal," instead of "zo Torjal"

Definite articles will also gain -(k)a when applied to plural nouns. For example:

"Zona Azctirena zoka Mjoscwatura"

Adjectives

Taxnul adjectives are to be declined for the case of the noun they modify. They also are placed after the noun they describe. Here's yet another chart for you to memorize:

nom -
acc -(o)k
dat -(o)tl
gen -(o)r
equ -(o)s

And here's a chart using the example "My red bag:"

nom Bjoktl akal zori
acc Bjoktl akalok wilok
dat Bjoktl akalotl wilotl
gen Bjoktl akalor zilom
equ Bjoktl akalos wilos

Verbs

Verbs in Taxnul are conjugated for person and number. Their infinitive forms consist of the verb stem + "ir," for example "kaxir." Below is a chart detailing the present-tense congugations of the verb "antir," or, "to eat."

person singular plural
1st antit antin
2nd antot antota
3rd antur antutan

The future tense in Taxnul is as simple as using the verb "gomir" as an auxilliary, for example:

Present: Sil optit moktl. "I see you." Future: Sil gomit moktl optir. "I will see you."

To form the past tense in Taxnul, the participle of the verb must be used. This is formed by prefixing "ko(k)-" to the 3rd person singular conjugation of the word. Example: "fisir" becomes "kofisur." After constructing the participle, the auxiliary verb "pozcir" is to be used, while kicking the participle to the end of the sentence. Consider this example:

Present: Ul soxtur zcik. "They annoy me." Complex Past: Ul pozcur zcik kosoxtur. "They annoyed me."

Prepositions

Prepositions in taxnul pass either the Accusative, Dative, or Equative case to their objects. There is no hard and fast rule as to which preposition passes which case, so the only way to reliably get it right is to memorize the following chart:

Accusative Dative Equative
nof - near
nabatl - next to
zox - from
opruf - on
pore - for
bul - inside
duw - outside
gorok - without
uzcof - around
upram - over, above, about
buraw - into
duwox - out of
uban - under
ulbet - before, behind
irwo - after, in front
aw - to
winjo - like
mok - with
mu - by way of, through

There is an exception, however; The preposition "zor" takes the Genative case.

Syntax

Verbs

Causative Voice

In Taxnul, you can form the causative voice by using the auxilliary verb "kescir" with the action's gerund form. To form the gerund, simply suffix -(t)utl to the verb's stem. Take this for example:

Active: Mozc optot. "You see." Causative: Sil kescit moret Optutl. "I make you see."

If the acting verb, however, is transitive and takes an object, the construction uses the Genitive case as such:

Causative: Sil kescit moret Optutl zo Gjax. "I make you see the insect."

More literally, that last example could be translated as: "I give you sight of the insect."

Passive Voice

Similarly, in Taxnul you construct the passive voice by using the verb "wolakir" along with the participle, and the word "mu."

Active: Sil optit zom Gjax. "I see the insect." Passive: Sil wolakit mu zan Gjax kokoprut. "I am seen by the insect."

Simultaneous Converb

Taxnul features a converb construction to denote two actions occuring at the same time. This is formed with a simple suffix -ullos to the verb stem.

Sil dorakullos kulwit. "I fall while walking"

Note that the suffix is appended to the subordinate action in the sentence.

Writing System

Taxnul has a writing system similar to the Elian Script, in which words are read in columns of letters from top to bottom, left to right. This system allows words to be written in many different forms. Here's a couple graphics and examples to explain:

In mundane situations such as books, letters, computers, etc., written taxnul is typically seen straightforwardly aligned left to right in one row of characters. The columnar alignment of letters is seen primarily with signatures, jewelery, in religious contexts, grafitti, and other such places.

Examples