Taxnul Reference Grammar

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Contents

I. Introduction

II. Phonology

III. Morphology

A. Pronouns

B. Articles

C. Adjectives

D. Verbs

E. Prepositions

IV. Syntax

V. Writing System

VI. Examples

Introduction

uhhhhhhhhhhhh taxnul is my conlang. it's a personal lang so don't jump on my ass for anything that isnt 900% naturalistic.

i'm also not an expert linguist or anything so don't yell at me if i said something stupid ;~;

so.. yeah. here's the reference grammar.

Phonology

(Phonemes where romanization differs from IPA representation have romanizations in red.)

Consonants

bilabial labiodental
alveolar
postalveolar
palatal velar
plosive p, b t, d k, g
nasal m n
tap / flap ɾ r
fricative f, v w s, z ʃ sc, ʒ zc x
lateral fricative ɬ ll
lateral affricate tl
approximant j
lateral approximant l

Vowels

front central back
close i u
close-mid e o
mid ə e
open ɑ a

Morphology

Taxnul is a Nominative-Accusative language. This means that the argument of an intransitive verb takes the same case as the agent of a transitive ones, that being the Nominative case. It follows, then, that the patient, or direct object, of a transitive verb takes the Accusative case. In addition to these, Taxnul features three additional cases: The Dative, Genitive, and Equative. Case in Taxnul is marked on articles, adjectives, and pronouns. Below is a series of explanations with example sentences.

Dative

The Dative case denotes the recipient or beneficiary of an action, or, in English, the indirect obect of a verb.
Consider the sentence "I gave the book to the customer." in Taxnul, this translates to:

Sil pozcit zotl Gapiren zom Pjosct kokescare.

As you can see, zotl Gapiren, or, "the customer," is in the Dative case because they are the recipient of the verb, "kokescare."

Genitive

The Genitive case denotes possession. This is achieved in english by appending "'s" to a the owner of the noun being modified, or with "of." in Taxnul, the system is similar to that of German. Consider the translation for the sentence "That is the woman's handbag":

Do kax zon Bjoktl zo Kaisc.

*Note: As Taxnul doesn't denote gender, the word for 'woman' is simply 'Kaisc,' or 'person.'

As is illustrated, the Genitive case is inherited by the owner currently modifying the noun in question.

Equative

Finally, the Equative case denotes comparison of equals, as in "as... as a...." consider the sentence "You're as fortunate as a spider."

Mozc kaxat kve karak winjo ak Scjanatl

*Literally: "You're so (kve) fortunate like (winjo) a spider"

The Equative case in Taxnul is also used as a similative case, as in the sentence "It's like a bad dream." Translation: Ul kax winjo ak Sorazc scotlakos.

Pronouns

Pronouns in Taxnul are declined for case and number, below is a chart for the personal pronouns.

person nom acc dat equ
1st singular sil zcik scotl zil
1st plural sila zcila scila zitla
2nd singular mozc moktl moret mur
2nd plural mora moktara
morela
mojtaw
3rd singular ul utl ular uz
3rd plural ulia utlia ulora uzta

And, the possessive pronouns:

person nom acc dat gen equ
1st singular zori wilok wilotl zilom wilos
1st plural zoria wjutok wjutl zitlor wjutos
2nd singular emta emtak emtatl emtar emtas
2nd plural eloma elomak
elomatl
elomar elomos
3rd singular zoru zoruk zorutl zoruw zorus
3rd plural asoru asoruk asorutl asoruw asorus

*notice the irregularity in the 1st person nominative and genative.

Articles

There's not a ton to say about the articles, i just kinda needed somewhere to dump this chart.

nom acc dat gen equ
definite zon zom zotl zo zan
indefinite en em et er ak

Note that the definite articles drop the /z/ when immediately preceded my a sibilant. For example:

"Zon Pjas o Torjal," instead of "zo Torjal"

Adjectives

Taxnul adjectives are to be declined for the case of the noun they modify. They also are placed after the noun they describe. Here's yet another chart for you to memorize:

nom -
acc -(o)k
dat -(o)tl
gen -(o)r
equ -(o)s

And here's a chart using the example "My red bag:"

nom wil Bjoktl akal
acc wilok Bjoktl akalok
dat wilotl Bjoktl akalotl
gen wilor Bjoktl akalor
equ wilos Bjoktl akalos

Verbs

Verbs in Taxnul are conjugated for person and number. Their infinitive forms consist of the verb stem + "ir," for example "kaxir." Below is a chart detailing the present-tense congugations of the verb "antir," or, "to eat."

person singular plural
1st antit antin
2nd antot antota
3rd antur antutan

The future tense in Taxnul is as simple as conjugating the verb, and prefixing "wo-." If the verb stem begins in a vowel, prefix "woj-." Example:

Present: Sil optit moktl. "I see you."

Future: Sil wojoptit moktl. "I will see you."

In addition to the future and present, Taxnul features two past tenses: The simple (or "enwak -- easy") and complex (or "gosan -- whole") past.

To form the complex past tense, the past participle of the verb must be used. This is formed by prefixing "ko(k)-" and changing "ir" to "are". Example: "fisir" becomes "kofisare." After constructing the past participle, the auxiliary verb "pozcir" is to be used, and the modified verb kicked to the end of the sentence. Consider this example:

Present: Ul soxtur zcik. "They annoy me."

Complex Past: Ul pozcur zcik kosoxtare. "They have annoyed me."

This brings us, finally, to the simple past. It definitely lives up to its name, as all you have to do is conjugate the verb normally and prefix "ko(k)-." Here's an example:

Present: Sila zultin moktl. "We love you."

Simple Past: Sila kozultin moktl. "We loved you."

Simple, right?

Prepositions

Syntax

under construction

Writing System

Taxnul has a traditional ceremonial writing system similar to the Elian Script, in which words are read in columns of letters from top to bottom, left to right. This system allows words to be written in many different forms. Here's a couple graphics and examples to explain:

As was previously stated, this system has traditionally been used in ceremonial contexts, such as religious celebrations, government seals, etc. In modern-day, however, it has become popular among young Taxnula. Today it is commonly used to write sigils, carve phrases into trees, graffiti, and for signatures. It also can still be found in its original religious contexts.

Examples